The computer revolution happened in the mid-1970s, as proclaimed in the Homebrew Computer Club Newsletter, originated from “a hobby for fun.”[74] These computer hobbyists were certainly heroes. However, this study showed that computer hobbyists were different from hackers, who worried that personal computers had become a threat to their culture. While most historians would agree that the direction for developing computer technology had changed dramatically since the innovation of the Altair 8800 in 1975, it is still uncertain who should be credited for this change. This study suggests computer hobbyists as a more possible candidate than hackers.

The whole story of personal computers is more complicates than has been presented in this essay, and the story itself certainly has not ended yet. In 1980, IBM finally decided to enter the market of personal computers, and it acted fast.[75] In August 1981, the IBM Personal Computer was already in retail stores.[76] By 1984, IBM sold two million computers and the IBM Personal Computers had become an industry standard.[77] While Apple Computer and IBM continuously fought for their market shares in the following years, both companies eventually lost to Microsoft, which was a company devoted solely to software development. Moreover, if the personal computer has “atomized” its users—as Steels had once complained—then the rise of the Internet in the 1990s was again redefining the computers.[78] Will the combination of the Internet and personal computers finally achieve the hackers’ belief in information-sharing?[79] Nobody has an answer to this question, but surely many will come forward and attempt to finish this revolution.

74. Fred Moore,. “It’s A Hobby,” Homebrew Computer Club Newsletter (Menlo Park, CA). 7 June 1975.
75. Campbell and Aspray, “The Shaping of the Personal Computer,” 253.
76. Ibid., 256-57.
77. Segaller, Nerds 2.0.1, 183.
78. Steele, “Confessions of a Happy Hacker,” xiv.
79. Raymond, The New Hacker’s Dictionary 3d ed., 234.


Primary Sources:
Byte, September, 1975 – December, 1977.
Creative Computing, December 1974 – December 1976.
Dr. Dobb’s Journal, January, 1976 – December 1976.
Electronics World, January, 1974 – December, 1975.
Popular Electronics, January, 1974 – December, 1976.
Radio Electronics, January, 1974 – December, 1975.
The Amateur Computerist, 11 February 1988.
Nelson, Theodor H. Computer Lib: You Can and Must Understand Computers Now. South Bend, Ind.: by the author, 1974.
________. The Home Computer Revolution. South Bend, Ind.: by the author, 1977.

Secondary Sources:
Bard, Doug. The People’s Computer Company Alumni Pages. 15 May 2001 (29 November 2002).

Campbell-Kelly, Martin, and William Aspray. “The Shaping of the Personal Computer.” In Computer: A History of the Information Machine, 233-58. New York: Basic Books, 1996.

Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. I, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

Damer, Bruce. The DigiBarn Computer Museum. <> (13 November 2002).

Delaney, Frank. “The World’s First Commercially Available PC.” In History of the Microcomputer Revolution. Spokane, WA:KPBX, 1995.

Espinosa, Chris. “It Wasn't Supposed to Be Like This: The People Lost. The Priesthood Won.” MacTech 11, no. 1 (1995).

Freiberger, Paul, and Michael Swaine. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. Berkeley, California: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1984.

________. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. Second ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 2000.

Himanen, Pekka. The Hacker Ethic: A Radical Approach to the Philosophy of Business. New York: Random House, 2001.

Keep, Christopher, Tim McLaughlin, and Robin Parmar. “Ted Nelson and Xanadu.” The Electronic Labyrinth. November 1995. <
> (29 November 2002).

Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. New York: Penguin Books, 1994.

Light, Jennifer S. “When Computers Were Women.” Technology and Culture 40, no. 3 (1999): 455-83.

Luckow, Al. Personal website for Steve "the Woz" Wozniak. <> (12 November 2002).

Margolis, Philip E. The Random House Personal Computer Dictionary. New York: Random House, 1991.

Raymond, Eric S. The New Hacker's Dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1991.

________. The New Hacker's Dictionary. 3d ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1999.

Segaller, Stephen. Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet. New York: TV Books, 1999.

Steele, Guy. “Confessions of a Happy Hacker.” In The New Hacker's Dictionary, edited by Eric S. Raymond, ix-xiv. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1999.

________. The Hacker’s Dictionary. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1983.

Veit, Stan. Stan Veit's History of the Personal Computer. Asheville, North Carolina: WorldComm, 1993.

Weyhrich, Steven. Apple II History. <> (25 April 2003).

Williams, Gregg, and Mark Welch. “A Microcomputing Timeline.” Byte, September 1985, 198-207.